Rinsho Shinkeigaku (Clinical Neurology)

Brief Clinical Note

A patient with multiple sclerosis who developed bilateral optic neuritis and central trigeminal myelin lesion

Fumitaka Shimizu, M.D., Ph.D.1j, Yuki Mizumoto, M.D.1j and Takashi Kanda, M.D., Ph.D.1j

1) Department of Neurology and Clinical Neuroscience, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine

A 70-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital due to bilateral optic neuritis and left facial sensory disturbance that became exacerbated over 10 days. Both serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were negative for aquaporin 4 antibody and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody. A high level of myelin basic protein (MBP) in her CSF was observed. Brain MRI showed a high T2 signal and contrast enhancement of the bilateral optic nerve, intramedullary tract and central myelin lesion in the trigeminal nerve. After intravenous methylprednisolone pulse therapy, her visual impairment and facial sensory disturbance gradually improved. She was diagnosed with clinically isolated syndrome, based on 2017 McDonald criteria. A diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS) was suspected due to the trigeminal myelin lesion confined to the central myelin portion and high level of MBP in the CSF. Treatment with dimethyl fumarate has been effective for preventing recurrence in 13 months in this patient. The central-peripheral myelin transitional zone at the trigeminal nerve is located 1-6 mm from the pons, where central myelin changes to the peripheral myelin. This patient showed a high T2 signal at the trigeminal nerve 3 mm from the pons on MRI, suggesting the involvement of a central trigeminal myelin lesion. Findings of a central trigeminal myelin lesion on MRI may aid in differentiating between MS and seronegative neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder.
Full Text of this Article in Japanese PDF (1117K)

(CLINICA NEUROL, 62: 157|160, 2022)
key words: multiple sclerosis, central trigeminal myelin lesion, bilateral optic neuritis

(Received: 26-Jun-21)