Rinsho Shinkeigaku (Clinical Neurology)

Case Report

Multiple cerebral hemorrhages due to varicella-zoster virus vasculopathy presenting as cranial nerve palsy

Tatsuya Mukai, M.D.1), Toru Saiga, M.D., Ph.D.1) and Takehisa Araki, M.D., Ph.D.1)

1) Department of Neurology, Hiroshima Red Cross Hospital & Atomic-bomb Survivors Hospital

A 72-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of right facial muscle weakness and diplopia. He had been treated for aplastic anemia with cyclosporin for 2 years. Thirteen days before admission, a diagnosis of herpes zoster was made and treated with amenamevir. On admission, neurological examination revealed mild cognitive disturbance, mydriasis, weakness of the inferior rectus muscle of the left eye, and right peripheral facial nerve palsy. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis showed elevated leukocytes and increased protein levels. Antibody index to varicella-zoster virus (VZV) was elevated in CSF to 25.6, although VZV DNA was negative by PCR. Head CT revealed multiple intracerebral hemorrhages in the left dorsal pons, left ventral midbrain, left thalamus, and left front-parietal lobe. MR angiography detected cerebral artery stenosis. In addition to intravenous acyclovir, the patient was treated with steroid pulse therapy and steroid tapering therapy. One month after admission, his symptoms improved. We diagnosed him with VZV vasculopathy. We believe that multiple intracerebral hemorrhages due to VZV vasculopathy caused facial and oculomotor nerve palsy. Our findings suggest that cerebral hemorrhage induced by VZV vasculopathy must be considered when differentiating cranial nerve palsy after herpes zoster.
Full Text of this Article in Japanese PDF (1274K)

(CLINICA NEUROL, 60: 861|864, 2020)
key words: varicella-zoster virus vasculopathy, multiple cerebral hemorrhages, cranial nerve palsy

(Received: 10-Apr-20)