Rinsho Shinkeigaku (Clinical Neurology)

Case Report

Extra-ventricular drainage for the treatment of pneumococcal meningitis and hydrocephalus: a case report

Daisuke Kuzume, M.D.1), Yuko Morimoto, M.D.1), Takeshi Yoshida, M.D.2) and Masahiro Yamasaki, M.D.1)

1)Department of Neurology, Chikamori Hospital
2)Department of Rheumatology, Chikamori Hospital

A 53-year-old man was referred to our hospital because of fever and disturbed consciousness with a left-sided toothache from 5 days ago. Neurological examinations revealed a low level of consciousness, nuchal rigidity, bilateral mydriasis, and positive Babinski sign. A lumbar puncture yielded clouded fluid with a WBC 22,698/µl (polynuclear cell 98%), 681 mg/dl of protein and 0 mg/dl of glucose. The antigen of Streptococcus pneumoniae in urine and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were positive. Streptococcus pneumoniae was isolated from CSF culture. Brain CT on admission showed a communicating hydrocephalus. Diagnosis of pneumococcal meningitis with hydrocephalus was made and we treated with ceftriaxone and dexamethasone. The lumbar drainage placed at L 3/4 level became occluded, thus, extra-ventricular drainage was performed. Intracranial pressure (ICP) was 20 cmH2O upon insertion of the ICP sensor. At Day 2, the ICP decreased to 10 cmH2O and never increased during his course of hospitalization. Repeat brain CT showed no hydrocephalus. He responded to antimicrobial therapy and became lucid and afebrile. At Day 4, the extra-ventricular drainage was removed because of bleeding from right choroid plexus on brain CT. We treated with antimicrobial therapy until Day 21. He was transferred to another hospital for rehabilitation with mild neurological sequelae at Day 31. The cases presenting with hydrocephalus in the acute phase of bacterial meningitis has a high mortality rate. The presence of hydrocephalus is a poor prognostic factor. Although the therapeutic value of extra-ventricular drainage for hydrocephalus has been unclear, his report represents a case for neurologists to consider performing extra-ventricular drainage for hydrocephalus.
Full Text of this Article in Japanese PDF (1630K)

(CLINICA NEUROL, 59: 584|588, 2019)
key words: bacterial meningitis, hydrocephalus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, extra-ventricular drainage

(Received: 14-May-19)