Rinsho Shinkeigaku (Clinical Neurology)

Case Report

Acyclovir encephalopathy in a peritoneal dialysis patient despite adjusting the dose of oral acyclovir: a case report

Miho Kawabe Matsukawa, M.D., Ph.D.1), Yuya Suzuki, M.D.1), Daisuke Ikuma, M.D., Ph.D.2), Tatsuya Suwabe, M.D., Ph.D., M.S.2), Yoshikazu Uesaka, M.D., Ph.D.1) and Izumi Sugimoto, M.D.1)

1)Department of Neurology, Toranomon Hospital Kajigaya
2)Nephrology Center, Toranomon Hospital Kajigaya

We report a case of acyclovir encephalopathy in a 77-year-old man who was introduced to peritoneal dialysis three years earlier. He developed herpes zoster and was treated with acyclovir (ACV) at 800 mg daily per oral. Two days later, he developed consciousness disturbance, hallucinations and asterixis. Acyclovir was stopped and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) was switched to hemodialysis, which resulted in the resolution of his symptoms. Because the optimal dose of ACV varies among individuals depending on the bioavailability of ACV and metabolic enzyme activity, ACV encephalopathy can occur even when the acyclovir dose is modified according to the renal function of the affected patient. Because CAPD provides a poorer ACV clearance than hemodialysis, CAPD patients tend to have a higher risk of developing ACV encephalopathy and to recover more slowly. If CAPD patients develop ACV encephalopathy, a temporary change in the type of dialysis to hemodialysis should be considered.
Full Text of this Article in Japanese PDF (416K)

(CLINICA NEUROL, 59: 834|839, 2019)
key words: acyclovir, acyclovir encephalopathy, renal failure, peritoneal dialysis, herpes zoster

(Received: 14-Aug-19)