Rinsho Shinkeigaku (Clinical Neurology)

Case Report

A case of relapsing encephalitis positive for gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptor antibody associated with Type B3 thymoma

Takaya Kitano, M.D.1)4), Makoto Kinoshita, M.D., Ph.D.1), Kohki Shimazu, M.D.2), Hiroaki Fushimi, M.D.2), Kenichi Omori, M.D.3) and Takanori Hazama, M.D.1)

1)Department of Neurology, Osaka General Medical Center
2)Department of Pathology, Osaka General Medical Center
3)Department of Thoracic Surgery, Osaka General Medical Center
4)Department of Stroke Medicine, Kawasaki Medical School

A 87-year-old female presented with subacute progression of cognitive decline. Fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images of brain MRI showed multifocal high-intensity lesions. Thoracic CT image revealed the presence of thymoma, and serum autoantibody screening showed positivity for anti-gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptor antibody. Histopathological analysis confirmed type B3 thymoma after thymectomy. The patient received both plasmapheresis and intravenous methylprednisolone therapy, and showed remarkable amelioration of clinical symptoms and MRI abnormal high intensity. However, after 2 month from the clinical recovery, the patient showed recurrence of brain lesions and intravenous methylprednisolone monotherapy was performed. Continuation of oral steroid therapy was required to maintain the quienscent state of inflammation within the central nervous system. Anti-GABAA receptor antibody is a recently discovered novel autoantibody associated with autoimmue encephalitis. Due to the limited number of literature reported, clinical course and therapeutic response of GABAA receptor antibody encephalitis remains elusive. Here we reported a rare case of GABAA receptor antibody encephalitis with type B3 thymoma. Clinical, radiological and therapeutic courses described in our report highlight the importance of immunotherapy for treatment of the disease.
Full Text of this Article in Japanese PDF (790K)

(CLINICA NEUROL, 56: 764|768, 2016)
key words: anti-gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptor antibody, encephalitis, thymoma

(Received: 25-Jul-16)