Rinsho Shinkeigaku (Clinical Neurology)

Case Report

Treatment of intractable tuberculous meningitis using intrathecal isoniazid administration and steroid pulse therapy; A report of two cases

Ikuko Takahashi, M.D.1)2), Moemi Yamada, M.D.1), Masaaki Matsushima, M.D.1), Kazunori Sato, M.D.1)2), Takahiro Kano, M.D.1), Ichiro Yabe, M.D.1) and Hidenao Sasaki, M.D.1)

1)Department of Neurology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine
2)Present Address: Department of Neurology, Obihiro Kosei General Hospital

Tuberculous meningitis (TbM) is a neurological emergency condition that requires prompt initiation of treatment. The standard initial treatment for TbM is often insufficient for producing remission because the antituberculosis agent may cause severe side effects, or vasculitis and hydrocephalus may induce an intractable state. Moreover, it is difficult to distinguish paradoxical expansion from its own deterioration. We treated 2 cases of adult TbM by using multidisciplinary therapy, including methyl prednisolone pulse and intrathecal isoniazid administration. Both cases had not been diagnosed as pulmonary or other tuberculosis, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) culture and polymerase chain reaction at approximately 1 week after hospitalization identified the cases as TbM. We administered the standard initial treatment recommended by the British Infection Society guidelines for adults, but both cases deteriorated and showed elevation of intracranial pressure. We indwelled a lumbar drainage for Case 1 and an Ommaya reservoir for Case 2. We removed CSF and administrated isoniazid regularly using each of the drainage devices, added streptomycin, and increased the steroid dose including addition of steroid pulse therapy. Both cases improved, and their neurological dysfunction did not persist. After the induction of an intractable state occurs due to TbM, we are likely to assume poor prognosis and neurological sequelae. However, our experience in these cases showed amelioration of the symptoms leading to the rehabilitation of these patients in society.
Full Text of this Article in Japanese PDF (568K)

(CLINICA NEUROL, 52: 551|556, 2012)
key words: Tuberculous meningitis, Isoniazid, Intrathecal administration, Steroid pulse therapy

(Received: 10-Nov-11)